136. Dynamics of Hepatitis B virus capsid protein dimer regulate assembly through an allosteric network. Patterson A, Zhao Z, Waymire E, Zlotnick A, Bothner B. ACS Chem Biol. 2020 Jul 14 doi: 10.1021/acschembio.0c00481. Online ahead of print.

135. Revealing in real-time a multistep assembly mechanism for SV40 virus-like particles. van Rosmalen MGM, Kamsma D, Biebricher AS, Li C, Zlotnick A, Roos WH, Wuite GJL. Sci Adv. 2020 Apr 15;6(16):eaaz1639. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz1639. eCollection 2020 Apr.

134. The integrity of the intradimer interface of the Hepatitis B Virus capsid protein dimer regulates capsid self-assembly. Zhao Z, Wang JC, Segura CP, Hadden-Perilla JA, Zlotnick A. ACS Chem Biol. 2020 May 27 doi: 10.1021/acschembio.0c00277. Online ahead of print.

133. Local Stabilization of Subunit-Subunit Contacts Causes Global Destabilization of Hepatitis B Virus Capsids. Schlicksup CJ, Laughlin P, Dunkelbarger S, Wang JC, Zlotnick A. ACS Chem Biol. 2020 Jun 19;15(6):1708-1717. doi: 10.1021/acschembio.0c00320. Epub 2020 May 19.

132. Rapidly Forming Early Intermediate Structures Dictate the Pathway of Capsid Assembly. Asor R, Schlicksup CJ, Zhao Z, Zlotnick A, Raviv U. J Am Chem Soc. 2020 Apr 29;142(17):7868-7882. doi: 10.1021/jacs.0c01092. Epub 2020 Apr 20.


131. Assembly Reactions of Hepatitis B Capsid Protein into Capsid Nanoparticles Follow a Narrow Path through a Complex Reaction Landscape. Asor R, Selzer L, Schlicksup CJ, Zhao Z, Zlotnick A, Raviv U. ACS Nano. 2019 Jul 23;13(7):7610-7626. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.9b00648. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

130. Structural Differences between the Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus Core Protein in the Dimer and Capsid States Are Consistent with Entropic and Conformational Regulation of Assembly. Zhao Z, Wang JC, Gonzalez-Gutierrez G, Venkatakrishnan B, Asor R, Khaykelson D, Raviv U, Zlotnick A. J Virol. 2019 Jun 28;93(14). pii: e00141-19. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00141-19. Print 2019 Jul 15.

129. Evolution of Intermediates during Capsid Assembly of Hepatitis B Virus with Phenylpropenamide-Based Antivirals. Kondylis P, Schlicksup CJ, Katen SP, Lee LS, Zlotnick A, Jacobson SC. ACS Infect Dis. 2019 May 10;5(5):769-777. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.8b00290. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

128. Competition between Normative and Drug-Induced Virus Self-Assembly Observed with Single-Particle Methods. Kondylis P, Schlicksup CJ, Brunk NE, Zhou J, Zlotnick A, Jacobson SC. J Am Chem Soc. 2019 Jan 23;141(3):1251-1260. doi: 10.1021/jacs.8b10131. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

127. Analytical Techniques to Characterize the Structure, Properties, and Assembly of Virus Capsids. Kondylis P, Schlicksup CJ, Zlotnick A, Jacobson SC. Anal Chem. 2019 Jan 2;91(1):622-636. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b04824. Epub 2018 Dec 3.


126. Use of a Fluorescent Analogue of a HBV Core Protein-Directed Drug To Interrogate an Antiviral Mechanism. Nair S, Li L, Francis S, Turner WW, VanNieuwenhze M, Zlotnick A. J Am Chem Soc. 2018 Nov 14;140(45):15261-15269. doi: 10.1021/jacs.8b07988. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

125. Effect of dsDNA on the Assembly Pathway and Mechanical Strength of SV40 VP1 Virus-like Particles. van Rosmalen MGM, Li C, Zlotnick A, Wuite GJL, Roos WH. Biophys J. 2018 Nov 6;115(9):1656-1665. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2018.07.044. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

124. Virus Assembly Antagonists from Redesigned Antibodies. Zhao Z, Zlotnick A. Structure. 2018 Oct 2;26(10):1297-1299. doi: 10.1016/j.str.2018.09.002.

123. Assembly Properties of Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Mutants Correlate with Their Resistance to Assembly-Directed Antivirals. Ruan L, Hadden JA, Zlotnick A.J Virol. 2018 Sep 26;92(20). pii: e01082-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01082-18. Print 2018 Oct 15.

122. An Assembly-Activating Site in the Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Protein Can Also Trigger Disassembly. Qazi S, Schlicksup CJ, Rittichier J, VanNieuwenhze MS, Zlotnick A. ACS Chem Biol. 2018 Aug 17;13(8):2114-2120. doi: 10.1021/acschembio.8b00283. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

121. Molecular Jenga: The Percolation Phase Transition (Collapse) in Virus Capsids. Brunk N, Lee LS, Glazier JA, Butske WD, Zlotnick A. Phys Biol. 2018 Jun 6;15(5):056005. doi: 10.1088/1478-3975/aac194.

120. Characterization of Virus Capsids and Their Assembly Intermediates by Multi-Cycle Resistive-Pulse Sensing with Four Pores in Series. Zhou J, Kondylis P, Haywood DG, Harms ZD, Lee LS, Zlotnick A, Jacobson SC. Anal Chem. 2018 Jun 19;90(12):7267-7274. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b00452. Epub 2018 May 29.

119. All-atom molecular dynamics of the HBV capsid reveals insights into biological function and cryo-EM resolution limits. Hadden JA, Perilla JR, Schlicksup CJ, Venkatakrishnan B, Zlotnick A, Schulten K. Elife 2018 Apr 27;7. pii: e32478. doi: 10.7554/eLife.32478.

118. Multiple Pathways in Capsid Assembly. Lutomski CA, Lyktey NA, Pierson EE, Zhao Z, Zlotnick A, Jarrold MF. J Am Chem Soc. 2018 May 2;140(17):5784-5790. doi: 10.1021/jacs.8b01804. [Epub 2018 Apr 19]

117. Asymmetric Modification of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Genomes by an Endogenous Cytidine Deaminase inside HBV Cores Informs a Model of Reverse Transcription. Nair S, Zlotnick A. J Virol. 2018 Apr 27;92(10). pii: e02190-17. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02190-17. Print 2018 May 15.

116. Hepatitis B virus core protein allosteric modulators can distort and disrupt intact capsids. Schlicksup CJ, Wang JC, Francis S, Venkatakrishnan B, Turner WW, VanNieuwenhze M, Zlotnick A. eLife 2018 Jan 29;7, pii :e31473 doi: 10.7554/eLife.31473

115. Geometric Defects and Icosahedral Viruses. Wang JC, Mukhopadhyay S, Zlotnick A. Viruses 2018 Jan 4;10(1). pii: E25. doi: 10.3390/v10010025. Review.


114. Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Completion Occurs through Error Correction. Lutomski CA, Lyktey NA, Zhao Z, Pierson EE, Zlotnick A, Jarrold MF. J Am Chem Soc. 2017 Nov 22;139(46):16932-16938. doi: 10.1021/jacs.7b09932. [Epub 2017 Nov 10]

113. Length of encapsidated cargo impacts stability and structure of in vitro assembled alphavirus core-like particles. Rayaprolu V, Moore A, Wang JC, Goh BC, Perilla JR, Zlotnick A, Mukhopadhyay S. J Phys Condens Matter 2017 Dec 6;29(48):484003. doi: 10.1088/1361-648X/aa90d0.

112. A Molecular Breadboard: Removal and Replacement of Subunits in an Hepatitis B Virus Capsid. Lee LS, Brunk N, Haywood DG, Keifer D, Pierson E, Kondylis P, Wang JC, Jacobson SC, Jarrold MF, Zlotnick A. Protein Sci. 2017 Nov;26(11):2170-2180. doi: 10.1002/pro.3265. [Epub 2017 Sep 16]

111. HBV RNA pre-genome encodes specific motifs that mediate interactions with the viral core protein that promote nucleocapsid assembly. Patel N, White SJ, Thompson RF, Bingham R, Weiß EU, Maskell DP, Zlotnick A, Dykeman E, Tuma R, Twarock R, Ranson NA, Stockley PG. Nat Microbiol. 2017 Jun 19;2:17098. doi: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2017.98.

110. Single Particle Observation of SV40 VP1 Polyanion-Induced Assembly Shows That Substrate Size and Structure Modulate Capsid Geometry. Li C, Kneller AR, Jacobson SC, Zlotnick A. ACS Chem Biol. 2017 May 19;12(5):1327-1334. doi: 10.1021/acschembio.6b01066. [Epub 2017 Mar 30]

109. Nanofluidic Devices with 8 Pores in Series for Real-Time, Resistive-Pulse Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Assembly. Kondylis P, Zhou J, Harms ZD, Kneller AR, Lee LS, Zlotnick A, Jacobson SC. Anal Chem. 2017 May 2;89(9):4855-4862. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b04491. [Epub 2017 Apr 17]

108. Synergistic Interactions between Hepatitis B Virus RNase H Antagonists and Other Inhibitors. Lomonosova E, Zlotnick A, Tavis JE.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Feb 23;61(3). pii: e02441-16. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02441-16. Print 2017 Mar.


107. Editorial overview: Virus structure and assembly: Virions - from structure and physics to design principles. Zlotnick A, Huiskonen JT. Curr Opin Virol. 2016 Jun;18:vii-viii. doi: 10.1016/j.coviro.2016.07.001. No abstract available.

106. Importin β Can Bind Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein and Empty Core-Like Particles and Induce Structural Changes. Chao Chen*, Joseph Che-Yen Wang*, Elizabeth E. Pierson,David Z. Keifer, Mildred Delaleau, Lara Gallucci, Christian Cazenave, Michael Kann, Martin F. Jarrold and Adam Zlotnick. PLOS Pathogens (2016), DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005802 (*Equal contribution)

105. The Structural Biology of Hepatitis B Virus: Form and Function. Balasubramanian Venkatakrishnan and Adam Zlotnick. Annu. Rev. Virol. (2016), 3:9.1–9.23, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-virology-110615-042238

104. Phosphorylation of the Brome Mosaic Virus Capsid Regulates the Timing of Viral Infection. Haley S Hoover, Joseph Che-Yen Wang, Stefani Middleton, Peng Ni, Adam Zlotnick, Robert C Vaughan and C. Cheng Kao. Journal of Virology (2016), DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00833-16

103. Hepatitis B virus capsids have diverse structural responses to small molecule ligands bound to the HAP pocket. Balasubramanian Venkatakrishnan, Sarah P. Katen, Samson Francis, Srinivas Chirapu, M.G. Finn, and Adam Zlotnick. Journal of Virology (2016), DOI: 10.1128/JVI.03058-15


102. Assembly and Release of Hepatitis B Virus. Lisa Selzer and Adam Zlotnick. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. (2015), Nov 9;5(12), DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a021394

101. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Phosphorylation Sites Affect Capsid Stability and Transient Exposure of the C-terminal Domain. Lisa Selzer, Ravi Kant, Joseph C-Y Wang, Brian Bothner, and, Adam Zlotnick. The Journal of Biological
(2015), DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M115.678441

100. Monitoring Assembly of Virus Capsids with Nanofluidic Devices. Zachary D. Harms , Lisa Selzer , Adam Zlotnick , and Stephen C. Jacobson. ACS Nano (2015), 9(9): 9087-9096

99. Self-Assembly of an Alphavirus Core-Like Particle is Distinguished by Strong Intersubunit Association Energy and Structural Defects. Joseph Che-Yen Wang*, Chao Chen*, Vamseedhar Rayaprolu, Suchetana Mukhopadhyay, and Adam Zlotnick. ACS Nano (2015), 9(9): 8898-8906 (*Equally contribution)

98. Macromolecular Crystallography for Synthetic Abiological Molecules: Combining xMDFF and PHENIX for Structure Determination of Cyanostar Macrocycles. Abhishek Singharoy#, Balasubramanian Venkatakrishnan#, Yun Liu#, Christopher G. Mayne, Semin Lee, Chun-Hsing Chen, Adam Zlotnick*, Klaus Schulten*, and Amar H. Flood*. J Am Chem Soc. (2015), 137(27): 8810-8818 (#Equally contribution; *Co-correspondence)

97. Core protein: A pleiotropic keystone in the HBV lifecycle. A. Zlotnick, B. Venkatakrishnan, Z. Tan, E. Lewellyn, W. Turner, and S. Francis. Antiviral Research (2015), DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2015.06.020

96. Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry Identifies Preferred Non-Icosahedral Polymorphs in the Self-Assembly of Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus Capsids. Elizabeth Pierson, David Keifer, Alexander Kukreja, Joseph Wang, Adam Zlotnick, and Martin Jarrold. Journal of Molecular Biology (2015), DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2015.06.019, 428(2):292-300 (2016)

95. Assembly and Release of Hepatitis B Virus. L. Selzer and A. Zlotnick. In The Hepatitis B and Delta Viruses; C. Seeger and S. Locarnini, Eds.; CSH Press, 2015; pp 91-107

94. Self-Assembling Virus-like and Virus-Unlike Particles. Adam Zlotnick, Samson Francis, Lyesiang Lee, and Joseph C-Y Wang. In Viral Nanotechnology; Y. Khudyakov and P. Pumpens, Eds.; CRC Press, 2015; pp 13-26

93. Anti capsid drugs HAP12 and AT130 target HBV core protein nuclear functions. L. Belloni, G.A. Palumbo, L. Li, S.R. Chirapu, L. Calvo, L. Lupacchini, M.G. Finn, U. Lopatin, A. Zlotnick, M. Levrero. Digestive and Liver Disease. (2015), 47, Supp. 1, Page e10

92. The interface between HBV capsid proteins affects self-assembly, pgRNA packaging, and reverse transcription. Zhenning Tan, Karolyn Pionek, Nuruddin Unchwaniwala, Megan L. Maguire, Daniel D. Loeb and Adam Zlotnick. Journal of Virology (2015), 89(6): 3275-3284

91. Single-particle electrophoresis in Nanochannels. Zachary D. Harms , Daniel G. Haywood , Andrew R. Kneller , Lisa Selzer , Adam Zlotnick , and Stephen C. Jacobson. Analytical chemistry (2015), 87(1): 699-705


90. Structurally Similar Woodchuck and Human Hepadnavirus Core Proteins Have Distinctly Different Temperature Dependences of Assembly. Alexander A Kukreja , Joseph Che-Yen Wang, Elizabeth E Pierson, David Z Keifer, Lisa Selzer, Zhenning Tan, Bogdan Dragnea, Martin F Jarrold and Adam Zlotnick. Journal of Virology (2014), 88(24):14105-14115

89. The HBV Core Protein Intra-dimer Interface Modulates Capsid Assembly and Stability. Lisa Selzer , Sarah Palmer Katen , and Adam Zlotnick. Biochemistry (2014), 53(34):5496-5504

88. Transmission electron microscopy enables the reconstruction of the catenane and ring forms of CS2 hydrolase. Joseph Che-Yen Wang*, Adam Zlotnick, and Jasmin Mecinović*. Chem Comm (2014), 50:10281-10283

87. Encapsidated hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase is poised on an ordered RNA lattice. Joseph Che-Yen Wang, David G. Nickens, Thomas B Lentz, Daniel D. Loeb and Adam Zlotnick. PNAS (2014), 111(31):11329-11334

86. HAPs hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid inhibitors prevent HBc interaction with the viral minichromosome and selected host cell genes to inhibits transcription and affect cccDNA stability. L. Belloni, L. Li, G.A. Palumbo, S.R. Chirapu, L. Calvo, M.G. Finn, U. Lopatin, A. Zlotnick, M. Levrero. Digestive and Liver Disease. (2014), 46, Supp. 1, Page e9

85. Detection of Late Intermediates in Virus Capsid Assembly by Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry. Elizabeth Pierson, David Keifer, Lisa Selzer, Lye Siang Lee, Nathan C Contino, Joseph C-Y Wang, Adam Zlotnick, and Martin F Jarrold. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2014),136(9):3536–3541


84. Scaffold properties are a key determinant of the size and shape of self-assembled virus-derived particles. Stanislav Kler*, Joseph Che-Yen Wang*, Mary Dhason, Ariella Oppenheim, Adam Zlotnick. ACS Chemical Biology (2013), 8(12):2753–2761

83. Hepatitis Virus Capsid Polymorph Stability Depends on Encapsulated Cargo Size. Li He, Zachary Porterfield, Paul van der Schoot, Adam Zlotnick, and Bogdan Dragnea. ACS Nano (2013), 7(10):8447–8454

82. Assembly-Directed Antivirals Differentially Bind Quasiequivalent Pockets to Modify Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Tertiary and Quaternary Structure. Sarah P. Katen, Zhenning Tan, Srinivas Reddy Chirapu, M.G. Finn and Adam Zlotnick. Structure (2013), 21(8):1406-1416

81. Pathogens Use Structural Mimicry of Native Host Ligands as a Mechanism for Host Receptor Engagement. Nir Drayman, Yair Glick, Orly Ben-nun-Shaul, Hagit Zer, Adam Zlotnick, Doron Gerber, Ora Schueler-Furman, Ariella Oppenheim. Cell Host and Microbe (2013), 14(1):63–73

80. To build a virus on a nucleic acid substrate. Adam Zlotnick,  J. Zachary Porterfield, and Joseph Che-Yen Wang. Biophysical J (2013), 104(7):1595-1604

79. Protein, At Least Three Structures, and Many Functions. Adam Zlotnick, Zhenning Tan, and Lisa Selzer. Structure (2013), 21(1):6–8

78. Genetically altering the thermo and kinetics of Hepatitis B Virus capsid assembly has profound effects on virus replication in cell culture.  Zhenning Tan, Megan Maguire, Daniel Loeb, and Adam Zlotnick. Journal of Virology (2013), 87(6):3208-16

77. Phase diagrams map the properties of anti-viral agents directed against Hepatitis B virus core assembly. Lichun Li, Srinivas Reddy Chirapu, M.G. Finn, and Adam Zlotnick.


76. Designing Two Self-Assembly Mechanisms into One Viral Capsid Protein. Mark B. van Eldijk, Joseph C.-Y. Wang, Inge J. Minten, Chenglei Li, Adam Zlotnick, Roeland J.M. Nolte, Jeroen J.L.M. Cornelissen and Jan C.M. van Hest. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2012), 134(54):18506-9

75. In vitro assembly of an empty picornavirus capsid, an authentic dodecahedral virus. Chenglei Li, Joseph Che-Yen Wang, Milton W. Taylor, Adam Zlotnick, Journal of Virology (2012), 88(23):13062-9

74. Structural Organization of Pregenomic RNA and the Carboxy-Terminal Domain of the Capsid Protein of Hepatitis B Virus. Wang, C. J., Dhason, M.S., and Zlotnick, A., PLoS Pathog (2012), 8(9): e1002919

73. Differential assembly of Hepatitis B Virus core protein on single- and double-stranded nucleic acid suggest the dsDNA-filled core is spring-loaded; Dhason, M.S., Wang, C. J., Hagan, M.F., and Zlotnick, A., Virology (2012), 430(1), 20-9

72.The energetic contributions of scaffolding and coat proteins to the assembly of bacteriophage procapsids; Zlotnick, A., Suhanovsky, M. M., and Teschke, C. M., Virology (2012), 428(1), 64-9

71. RNA encapsidation by SV40-derived nanoparticles follows a rapid two-state mechanism; Kler S, Asor R, Li C, Ginsburg A, Harries D, Oppenheim A, Zlotnick A, Raviv U, J Am Chem Soc. (2012), 134(21), 8823-30


70. A kinase chaperones hepatitis B virus capsid assembly and captures capsid dynamics in vitro; Chen, C., Wang, J.C., and Zlotnick, A., PLoS Pathog (2011), 7(11):e1002388

69. Nanofluidic devices with two pores in series for resistive-pulse sensing of single virus capsids;Harms, Z.D., Mogensen, K.B., Nunes, P.S., Zhou, K., Hildenbrand, B.W., Mitra, I., Tan, Z., Zlotnick, A., Kutter, J.P., and Jacobson, S.C., Anal Chem (2011), 83(24), 9573-8

68. Viral double-strand RNA-binding proteins can enhance innate immune signaling by toll-like Receptor 3; Lai, Y., Yi, G., Chen, A., Bhardwaj, K., Tragesser, B.J., Rodrigo, A. V., Zlotnick, A., Mukhopadhyay, S., Ranjith-Kumar, C.T.,and Kao, C.C., PLoS ONE (2011), 6(10):e25837. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025837

67. Mechanisms of Icosahedral Virus Assembly; Zlotnick, A. and Fane, RSC Biomelocular Sciences (2011), 21 (Structural Virology), 180-202, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna and Robert McKenna (eds)

66. Characterization of Hepatitis B Virus Capsids by Resistive-Pulse Sensing; Zhou, K., Li, L., Tan, Z., Zlotnick, A. and Jacobson, S.C., Journal of the American Chemical Society (2011), 133(6), 1618-1621

65. Virus Assembly, Allostery, and Antivirals; Zlotnick, A. and Mukhopadhyay, S., Trends in Microbiology (2011), 19(1), 14-23


64. Stabilization of Hepatitis B Virus assembly intermediates by phenylpropenamides; Katen, S. P., Chirapu,S. R., Finn, M.G., and Zlotnick, A. ACS Chemical Biology (2010), 5(12), 1125-1136.

63. A Simple and General Method for Determining the Protein and Nucleic Acid Content of Viruses by UV Absorbance; Porterfield, J. Z. and Zlotnick, A. Virology (2010), 407(2), 281-288.

62. Exploring the pathways of virus assembly; Moisant, Paul; Neeman, Henry and Zlotnick, Adam. Biophysical Journal (2010), 99(5), 1350-1357

61. An Overview of Capsid Assembly Kinetics; Porterfield, J. Z. and Zlotnick, A. Emerging Topics in Physical Virology Peter G. Stockley and Reidun Twarock (eds). (2010) 131-158, Imperial College Press, London.

60. Full-length hepatitis B virus core protein packages viral and heterologous RNA with similarly high levels of cooperativity; Porterfield, James Zachary; Dhason, Savari Mary; Loeb, Daniel D.; Nassal, Michael; Stray, Stephen J.; Zlotnick, Adam, Journal of Virology (2010), 84(14), 7174-7184

59. Altering the energy landscape of virus self-assembly to generate kinetically trapped nanoparticles; Burns, Kevin; Mukherjee, Santanu; Keef, Thomas; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Zlotnick, Adam, Biomacromolecules (2010), 11(2), 439-442

58. Conformational changes in the hepatitis B virus core protein are consistent with a role for allostery in virus assembly; Packianathan, Charles; Katen, Sarah P; Dann, Charles E. III; Zlotnick, Adam, Journal of Virology (2010), 84(3), 1607-1615 (Cover Illustration)

J Virol Cover

57. Uncatalyzed assembly of spherical particles from SV40 VP1 pentamers and linear dsDNA incorporates both low and high cooperativity elements; Mukherjee, Santanu; Kler, Stanislav; Oppenheim, Ariella; Zlotnick, Adam, Virology (2010), 397(1), 199-204


56. The thermodynamics of virus capsid assembly; Katen, Sarah; Zlotnick, Adam, Methods in Enzymology (2009), 455(Biothermodynamics, Part A), 395-417

55. A Mutant Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Mimics Inhibitors of Icosahedral Capsid Self-Assembly; Bourne, Christina R.; Katen, Sarah P.; Fulz, Matthew R.; Packianathan, Charles; Zlotnick, Adam, Biochemistry (2009), 48(8), 1736-1742


54. Small-molecule effectors of hepatitis B virus capsid assembly give insight into virus life cycle; Bourne, Christina; Lee, Sejin; Venkataiah, Bollu; Lee, Angela; Korba, Brent; Finn, M. G.; Zlotnick, Adam, Journal of Virology (2008), 82(20), 10262-10270

53. A quantitative description of in vitro assembly of human papillomavirus 16 virus-like particles; Mukherjee, Santanu; Thorsteinsson, Marc V.; Johnston, Lauren Beth; DePhillips, Pete A.; Zlotnick, Adam, Journal of Molecular Biology (2008), 381(1), 229-237

52. Conformational Equilibria and Rates of Localized Motion within Hepatitis B Virus Capsids; Hilmer, Jonathan K.; Zlotnick, Adam; Bothner, Brian, Journal of Molecular Biology (2008), 375(2), 581-594


51. In vitro screening for molecules that affect virus capsid assembly (and other protein association reactions); Zlotnick, Adam; Lee, Angela; Bourne, Christina R.; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Domanico, Paul L.; Stray, Stephen J., Nature Protocols (2007), 2(3), 490-498 (Cover Illustration)

nat prot cover

50. Distinguishing Reversible from Irreversible Virus Capsid Assembly; Zlotnick, Adam, Journal of Molecular Biology (2007), 366(1), 14-18


49. Global structural changes in hepatitis B virus capsids induced by the assembly effector HAP1; Bourne, Christina R.; Finn, M. G.; Zlotnick, Adam, Journal of Virology (2006), 80(22), 11055-11061

48. BAY 41-4109 has multiple effects on Hepatitis B virus capsid assembly; Stray, Stephen J.; Zlotnick, Adam, Journal of Molecular Recognition (2006), 19(6), 542-548

47. Quantitative Analysis of Multi-component Spherical Virus Assembly: Scaffolding Protein Contributes to the Global Stability of Phage P22 Procapsids; Parent, Kristin N.; Zlotnick, Adam; Teschke, Carolyn M., Journal of Molecular Biology (2006), 359(4), 1097-1106

46. The role of subunit hinges and molecular "switches" in the control of viral capsid polymorphism; Tang, Jinghua; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Dryden, Kelly A.; Young, Mark J.; Zlotnick, Adam; Johnson, John E., Journal of Structural Biology (2006), 154(1), 59-67

45. An in vitro fluorescence screen to identify antivirals that disrupt hepatitis B virus capsid assembly; Stray, Stephen J.; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Kopek, Benjamin G.; Zlotnick, Adam, Nature Biotechnology  (2006), 24(3), 358-362 (Featured in Nature Reviews-Drug Discovery)

44. Redirecting the Coat Protein of a Spherical Virus to Assemble into Tubular Nanostructures; Mukherjee, Santanu; Pfeifer, Cory M.; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Liu, Jay; Zlotnick, Adam, Journal of the American Chemical Society (2006), 128(8), 2538-2539 (Featured in Science News, ACS Chemical Biology and Nature Reviews-Drug Discovery)


43. Simple models and simple analyses of virus capsid assembly; Zlotnick, Adam, Journal of Theoretical Medicine, (2005), 6(2), 111–114

42. Theoretical aspects of virus capsid assembly; Zlotnick, Adam, Journal of Molecular Recognition (2005), 18(6), 479-490

41. Regulating Self-Assembly of Spherical Oligomers; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Tang, Jinghua; Nyame, Yaw; Willits, Deborah; Young, Mark J.; Zlotnick, Adam, Nano Letters (2005), 5(4), 765-770

40. A heteroaryldihydropyrimidine activates and can misdirect hepatitis B virus capsid assembly; Stray, Stephen J.; Bourne, Christina R.; Punna, Sreenivas; Lewis, Warren G.; Finn, M. G.; Zlotnick, Adam, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2005), 102(23), 8138-8143

39. A reaction landscape identifies the intermediates critical for self-assembly of virus capsids and other polyhedral structures; Endres, Dan; Miyahara, Masaki; Moisant, Paul; Zlotnick, Adam, Protein Science (2005), 14(6), 1518-1525 (Cover Illustration)

prot sci cover


38. Interaction with capsid protein alters RNA structure and the pathway for in vitro assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus; Johnson Jennifer M; Willits Deborah A; Young Mark J; Zlotnick Adam, Journal of Molecular Biology (2004), 335(2), 455-64

37. Hepatitis B virus capsid assembly is enhanced by naturally occurring mutation F97L; Ceres, Pablo; Stray, Stephen J.; Zlotnick, Adam, Journal of Virology (2004), 78(17), 9538-9543

36. Zinc Ions Trigger Conformational Change and Oligomerization of Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Protein; Stray, Stephen J.; Ceres, Pablo; Zlotnick, Adam, Biochemistry (2004), 43(31), 9989-9998

35. Viruses and the physics of soft condensed matter; Zlotnick, Adam, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2004), 101(44), 15549-15550

34. Moving towards a better understanding of virus structure (book review); Zlotnick, Adam, Journal of Structural Biology, (2004), 145(3), 191-192


33. How does your virus grow? Understanding and interfering with virus assembly; Zlotnick, Adam; Stray, Stephen J., Trends in Biotechnology (2003), 21(12), 536-542 (Cover Illustration)

32. Are weak protein-protein interactions the general rule in capsid assembly? Zlotnick, Adam, Virology (2003), 315(2), 269-274

31. Observed Hysteresis of Virus Capsid Disassembly Is Implicit in Kinetic Models of Assembly; Singh, Sushmita; Zlotnick, Adam, Journal of Biological Chemistry (2003), 278(20), 18249-18255

30. Effects of the cowpea chlorotic mottle bromovirus β-hexamer structure on virion assembly; Willits, D.; Zhao, X.; Olson, N.; Baker, T. S.; Zlotnick, A.; Johnson, J. E.; Douglas, T.; Young, M. J., Virology (2003), 306(2), 280-288


29. Antibody epitopes on the neuraminidase of a recent H3N2 influenza virus (A/Memphis/31/98) ; Gulati, Upma; Hwang, Chi-Ching; Venkatramani, Lalitha; Gulati, Shelly; Stray, Stephen J.; Lee, Janis T.; Laver, W. Graeme; Bochkarev, Alexey; Zlotnick, Adam; Air, Gillian M., Journal of Virology (2002), 76(23), 12274-12280

28. Weak Protein-Protein Interactions Are Sufficient To Drive Assembly of Hepatitis B Virus Capsids ; Ceres, Pablo; Zlotnick, Adam, Biochemistry (2002), 41(39), 11525-11531

27. Model-based analysis of assembly kinetics for virus capsids or other spherical polymers ; Endres, Dan; Zlotnick, Adam, Biophysical Journal (2002), 83(2), 1217-1230

26. A small molecule inhibits and misdirects assembly of hepatitis B virus capsids; Zlotnick, Adam; Ceres, Pablo; Singh, Sushmita; Johnson, Jennifer M., Journal of Virology (2002), 76(10), 4848-4854


25. Mechanism of capsid assembly for an icosahedral plant virus ; Zlotnick, Adam; Aldrich, Ryan; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Ceres, Pablo; Young, Mark J., Virology (2000), 277(2), 450-456


24. A theoretical model successfully identifies features of hepatitis B virus capsid assembly ; Zlotnick, Adam; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Wingfield, Paul W.; Stahl, Stephen J.; Endres, Dan, Biochemistry (1999), 38(44), 14644-14652

23. Separation and crystallization of T = 3 and T = 4 icosahedral complexes of the hepatitis B virus core protein ; Zlotnick, Adam; Palmer, Ira; Kaufman, Joshua D.; Stahl, Stephen J.; Steven, Alasdair C.; Wingfield, Paul T., Acta Crystallographica, Section D: Biological Crystallography (1999), D55(3), 717-720

22. Localization of the N terminus of hepatitis B virus capsid protein by peptide-based difference mapping from cryoelectron microscopy ; Conway, J. F.; Cheng, N.; Zlotnick, A.; Wingfield, P. T.; Stahl, S. J.; Steven, A. C., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1998), 95(25), 14622-14627

21. Shared motifs of the capsid proteins of hepadnaviruses and retroviruses suggest a common evolutionary origin ; Zlotnick, Adam; Stahl, Steven J.; Wingfield, Paul T.; Conway, James F.; Cheng, Naiqian; Steven, Alasdair C., FEBS Letters (1998), 431(3), 301-304

20. Hepatitis B virus capsid: localization of the putative immunodominant loop (residues 78 to 83) on the capsid surface, and implications for the distinction between c and e-antigens ; Conway, J. F.; Cheng, N.; Zlotnick, A.; Stahl, S. J.; Wingfield, P. T.; Belnap, D. M.; Kanngiesser, U.; Noah, M.; Steven, A. C., Journal of Molecular Biology (1998), 279(5), 1111-1121

19. The making and breaking of symmetry in virus capsid assembly: glimpses of capsid biology from cryoelectron microscopy ; Steven, Alasdair C.; Trus, Benes L.; Booy, Frank P.; Cheng, Naiqian; Zlotnick, Adam; Caston, Jose R.; Conway, James F., FASEB Journal (1997), 11(10), 733-742

18. Localization of the C terminus of the assembly domain of hepatitis B virus capsid protein: implications for morphogenesis and organization of encapsidated RNA ; Zlotnick, A.; Cheng, N.; Stahl, S. J.; Conway, J. F.; Steven, A. C.; Wingfield, P. T., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1997), 94(18), 9556-9561

17. The extracellular domain of immunodeficiency virus gp41 protein: Expression in Escherichia coli, purification, and crystallization ; Wingfield, Paul T.; Stahl, Stephen J.; Kaufman, Joshua; Zlotnick, Adam; Hyde, C. Craig; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Clore, G. Marius, Protein Science (1997), 6(8), 1653-1660

16. Visualization of a 4-helix bundle in the hepatitis B virus capsid by cryo-electron microscopy ; Conway, J. F.; Cheng, N.; Zlotnick, A.; Wingfield, P. T.; Stahl, S. J.; Steven, A. C., Nature (London) (1997), 386(6620), 91-94

15. Resolution of space-group ambiguity and the structure determination of nodamura virus to 3.3 Å resolution from pseudo-R32 (monoclinic) crystals ; Zlotnick, Adam; Natarajan, Padmaja; Munshi, Sanjeev; Johnso, John E., Acta Crystallographica, Section D: Biological Crystallography (1997), D53(6), 738-746

14. Dimorphism of Hepatitis B Virus Capsids Is Strongly Influenced by the C-Terminus of the Capsid Protein ; Zlotnick, A.; Cheng, N.; Conway, J. F.; Booy, F. P.; Steven, A. C.; Stahl, S. J.; Wingfield, P. T., Biochemistry (1996), 35(23), 7412-7421

13. Structure determination of coxsackievirus B3 to 3.5 Å resolution ; Muckelbauer, Jodi K.; Kramer, Marcia; Minor, Iwona; Tong, Liang; Zlotnick, Adam; Johnson, John E.; Rossmann, Michael G., Acta Crystallographica, Section D: Biological Crystallography (1995), D51(6), 871-887

12. To build a virus capsid: An equilibrium model of the self assembly of polyhedral protein complexes ; Zlotnick, Adam, Journal of Molecular Biology (1994), 241(1), 59-67

11. Capsid assembly in a family of animal viruses primes an autoproteolytic maturation that depends on a single aspartic acid residue ; Zlotnick, Adam; Reddy, Vijay S.; Dasgupta, Ranjit; Schneemann, Anette; Ray, William J., Jr.; Rueckert, Roland R.; Johnson, John E., Journal of Biological Chemistry (1994), 269(18), 13680-13684

10. A monoclinic crystal with R32 pseudo-symmetry: A preliminary report of Nodamura virus structure determination ; Zlotnick, Adam; McKinney, Bonnie R.; Munshi, Sanjeev; Bibler, Jodi; Rossmann, Michael G.; Johnson, John E., Acta Crystallographica, Section D:  Biological Crystallography (1993), D49(6), 580-587

9. Analysis of two distinct single-stranded DNA binding sites on the recA nucleoprotein filament ; Zlotnick, Adam; Mitchell, Richard S.; Steed, Rita K.; Brenner, Stephen L., Journal of Biological Chemistry  (1993), 268(30), 22525-22530

8. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of bean pod mottle virus middle component RNA ; MacFarlane, S. A.; Shanks, M.; Davies, J. W.; Zlotnick, A.; Lomonossoff, G. P., Virology (1991), 183(1), 405-409

7. RecA protein self-assembly II.  Analytical equilibrium ultracentrifugation studies of the entropy-driven self-association of RecA ; Brenner, Stephen L.; Zlotnick, Adam; Stafford, Walter F., III., Journal of Molecular Biology (1990), 216(4), 949-964

6. RecA protein filaments bind two molecules of single-stranded DNA with off rates regulated by nucleotide cofactor ; Zlotnick, Adam; Mitchell, Richard S.; Brenner, Stephen L., Journal of Biological Chemistry (1990), 265(28), 17050-17054


5. An alpha-helical peptide model for electrostatic interactions of proteins with DNA; the N-terminus of RecA; Zlotnick, Adam; Brenner, Stephen L., Journal of Molecular Biology (1989), 209(3), 447-457

4. RecA protein self-assembly. Multiple discrete aggregation states reflect its filamentation on DNA; Brenner, Stephen L.; Zlotnick, Adam; Griffith, J. D., Journal of Molecular Biology (1988), 204(4), 959-972

3. Fluorescence quenching of cytochrome b5 in vesicles with an asymmetric transbilayer distribution of brominated phosphatidylcholine ; Everett, James; Zlotnick, Adam; Tennyson, Joan; Holloway, Peter W., Journal of Biological Chemistry (1986), 261(15), 6725-6729

2. Determination of the topography of cytochrome b5 in lipid vesicles by fluorescence quenching ; Markello, Tom; Zlotnick, Adam; Everett, James; Tennyson, Joan; Holloway, Peter W., Biochemistry (1985), 24(12), 2895-2901

1. In vivo function and membrane binding properties are correlated for Escherichia coli lamB signal peptides ; Briggs, Martha S.; Gierasch, Lila M.; Zlotnick, Adam; Lear, James D.; DeGrado, William F., Science (Washington, DC, United States) (1985), 228(4703), 1096-1099



A Zlotnick. Methods for detecting compounds that interfere with protein aggregation utilizing an in vitro fluorescence-based assay; Application No. 11/546,796, Patent No. 7,329,485 awarded Feb 12, 2008